Biometrics is the automated method of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions.
Biometric technologies should be considered and evaluated giving full consideration to the following characteristics:
- Universality: Every person should have the characteristic. People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be accommodated in some way.
- Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish.
- Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time. A person’s face, for example, may change with age.
- Collectibility: The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable.
- Performance: The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances.
- Acceptability: The general public must accept the sample collection routines. Nonintrusive methods are more acceptable.
- Circumvention: The technology should be difficult to deceive.
Fingerprint Identification is the method of identification using the impressions made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips. No two persons have exactly the same arrangement of ridge patterns, and the patterns of any one individual remain unchanged throughout life. Fingerprints offer an infallible means of personal identification. Other personal characteristics may change, but fingerprints do not.
Face Recognition Systems
Most face recognition systems focus on specific features on the face and make a two-dimensional map of the face. Newer systems make three-dimensional maps. The systems capture facial images from video cameras and generate templates that are stored and used for comparisons. Face recognition is a fairly young technology compared with other biometrics like fingerprints.
One face recognition technology, referred to as local feature analysis, looks at specific parts of the face that do not change significantly over time, such as:
- Upper sections of eye sockets
- Area surrounding cheek bones
- Sides of mouth
- Distance between eyes.
Data such as the distance between the eyes, the length of the nose, or the angle of the chin contribute collectively to the template.
A second method of face recognition is called the eigenface method. It looks at the face as a whole. A collection of face images is used to generate a two-dimensional gray-scale image to produce the biometric template.
Retina and Iris Identification
Iris recognition today combines technologies from several fields including, computer vision (CV), pattern recognition, statistical interference, and optics. The goal of the technology is near-instant, highly accurate recognition of a person’s identity based on a digitally represented image of the scanned eye. The technology is based upon the fact that no two iris patterns are alike (the probability is higher than that of fingerprints). The iris is a protected organ which makes the identification possibilities life long. The iris can therefore serve as a life long password which the person must never remember. Confidence in recognition and identification facilitates exhustive searches through nation-sized databases.
Iris recognition technology looks at the unique characteristics of the iris, the colored area surrounding the pupil. While most biometrics have 13 to 60 distinct characteristics, the iris is said to have 266 unique spots. Each eye is believed to be unique and remain stable over time and across environments (e.g., weather, climate, occupational differences).
Iris recognition systems use small, high-quality cameras to capture a black and white high-resolution photograph of the iris. Once the image is captured, the iris’ elastic connective tissue-called the trabecular meshwork-is analyzed, processed into an optical “fingerprint,” and translated into a digital form. Given the stable physical traits of the iris, this technology is considered to be one of the safest, fastest, and most accurate, noninvasive biometric technologies. This type of biometric scanning works with glasses and contact lenses in place. Therefore, iris scan biometrics may be more useful for higher risk interactions, such as building access.
There are more than few card technologies in use today. All cards may look the same but in reality they are not.
- Bar code cards
- Mag stripe cards
- Wiegand cards
- 125 kHz RFID or Proximity
- 13.56 MHz RFID cards or Mifare
First two card should be abandoned if already not out of use. They provide no or marginal protection over copying. Wiegand cards have tiny wires embedded inside the card body. This technology is still used but really going out and may not be available soon.
Real solution are last 2 technologies that are essentially contactless. Those cards do not require physical contact with reader in order to be recognized. Result is quick operation; readers last almost forever and could be used in harsh environment. Those cards are also quite hard to clone.
ABOUT CARD NUMBERS
Every card access credential (card, tag, keychain tag) has chip embedded inside. Chip is programmed with unique serial numbers and FC (Facility Code). When issuing card, operator of the system assigns specific card number to the person. There may be also extra 3 digit code called FC (Facility Code) or SC (Site Code) programmed in the cards.
26 bit cards range is 00001 to 65535 maximum. 37 bit cards have maximum number of cards in millions. FC range for 26 bit cards is 001 to 255. So back to every day practice, it is possible, for larger users to get duplicate card numbers. As such 37 bit cards or Mifare are more secure even though the equipment is slightly more expensive.
WHY YOU NEED ELECTRONIC ACCESS CONTROL?
Main purpose of access control is to keep doors locked so let’s start from keys and locks.
KEYS AND LOCKS
- Keys are easily duplicated.
- Keys can not control when (time and days) personnel are valid.
- Keys do not provide you with any knowledge or information of when and where someone has gained access.
- Changing locks is expensive. They should be replaced when: keys are lost, personnel turnover, mechanical problems.
- Changing locks and keys takes time, leaves your facility and assets vunerable.
- Locks can be compromised.
- Difficult to manage key distribution and control.
- No integration capabilities: integration to CCTV, Badging/Video data base, to alarm monitoring.
- Common number known by all or almost all employees
- No identification or knowledge of when or where someone has gained access.
- No control of when (time and day) personnel have access.
- Difficult to immediately delete and inform personnel of code changes.
- No integration capabilities.
- Guard can only be at one place at one time.
- Guard can be absent or late.
- Always subject to human mistakes and compromises.
- Posted to protect entrances not necessarily internal theft.
- Records can be inaccurate or difficult to read (who, when, where), if records are kept at all.
- A guard service is very expensive.
KEYPAD / COMBINATION LOCKS
SECURITY OFFICERS / GUARDS
ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRONIC ACCESS CONTROL
Electronic access control is computerized control over entry to any area that can be secured with lock and key. Entry is only allowed to authorized people at authorized times. All activity is electronically recorded for accurate and quick reporting purposes.
An access control system electronically safeguards your facility without utilizing keys or guards. What will card access do for you?
- Increases security.
- Increases accountability.
- Increases facility information.
- Reduces operating cost.
- Reduces liability.
- Reduces risk.
- Additional identification.
- Access multiple buildings, locations, computers or other places using same card.
- See and react to events happening in real time.
- See and use activity log.
OUR APPROACH & BENEFITS
LANSource’s security management integrates access control, video surveillance and alarm monitoring with information technology to provide you with peace of mind. We offer systems to meet requirements of businesses of all sizes, from simple systems for just a few doors to systems with enterprise requirements. All of our systems are designed to meet your needs to:
- Protect your assets with high-level building and property security
- Protect your employees from unwelcome intruders
- Restrict unauthorized access to the places and during the times you specify
- Provide an audit trail of who is accessing your facility and when
- Eliminate problems with mechanical key and lock systems through electronic access
WHY RESTRICT TO ONLY DOORS ACCESS
With an integrated Time Attendance module in the access control software it makes easy work of the tedious tasks involved with monitoring employee time and attendance. The Time Attendance software helps you control labour costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve workforce productivity.
The automated time and attendance module reduce labour costs by enforcing pay and work rules – consistently and accurately – across the organization. Labour-intensive timecard tracking, data entry, and approval processing are simplified. And that reduces the administrative time associated with attendance exceptions and employee inquiries — all while minimizing overpayments and compliance risk.
Through Visitor Management services, the system is able to accurately, effectively, and surreptitiously track the usage of a public building or site. In many organizations, visitors entering a ‘secure’ building, facility or campus are able to gain access by simply writing their name in a visitor log book. With today’s security concerns, this outdated practice lacks security and yields data that is incomplete, often difficult to read, and always impossible to analyze. Moreover, confidential information about recent visitors is readily available to all who flip through the pages.
In contrast, a visitor management system can gather increasing amounts of information and record facility usage by specific visitor and provide documentation of the visitor’s whereabouts. Because a visitor management system provides a record of building use, these systems are frequently used to complement building security and access control systems.